Shoe Modifications


A wedge is a shoe modification consisting of an insert incorporated into the heel of the orthotic. The wedge acts to align the calcaneus and mid-foot into midline, thus decreasing the strain on joints, ligaments and tendons.

Shoe Modifications

Internal shoe modifications are changes made to inside the shoe to relieve pressure or shear forces that can cause pain, irritation or trauma to the foot. External shoe modifications are made on the sole and or heel of the shoes.

Heel / Shoe Raises

A heel raise is placed inside the shoe to balance leg lengths and align the pelvis. It can also be incorporated in an orthotic for other conditions.
Higher heel raises are built into the heel externally.

A shoe raise is placed externally to the heel and sole of the whole shoe. The relative distribution on the shoe raise depends on the foot requirements.

Rocker Soles / Bars

Rocker soles or bars can be added as a modification to regular footwear. They can also be incorporated in to the construction of custom footwear.

There are several kinds:

The Rocker Bottom

The rocker bottom applies to the entire shoe bottom, from heel to toe, which is rounded to help your foot roll through the process. However, typically there is some area of the shoe bottom made flat to provide stability when standing.

The Rocker Sole

The rocker sole creates a roll through from the mid to the forefoot, depending on the placement of the apex line.

The Heel Rocker

The heel rocker applies to the heel only, reducing impact by delaying the heel impact and helps in a stiff rear foot.

Metatarsal Rocker Sole

Metatarsal rocker soles are made with the apex line proximal or behind the metatarsal heads to reduce pressure for the metatarsal heads.

The horseshoe rocker sole or butterfly rocker sole is a variation of the metatarsal rocker soles with extra cavity and padding for specific metatarsal heads.

The Hallux rigidus / Limitus rocker sole has a specific cutout to compensate for the lack of mobility of the1st MPJ.

Metatarsal Domes

Metatarsal domes and platforms relieve pressure from specific metatarsal heads or the entire transverse arch of the 2nd, 3rd or 4th metatarsal head. This modification is incorporated during the orthotic manufacture.
It can also be an internal shoe modification.

Velcro Conversions

A velcro conversion is a modification to a shoe whereby a velcro strip is attached where laces used to be.
Well balanced wedges can reduce pain on a medial or lateral knee joint component.
Wedges can be internal or external, covering the heel only or full shoe length.


Flares are shoe modifications which are commonly medial or lateral. Strips of material are applied to the whole sole or heel only depending on the requirements.

Essentially flares are used to widen the shoe, both sole and heel and provide stability, and improve balance etc.


Relasting is a process where a shoe bottom (heel & sole) is substantially widened or changed in shape. The existing shoe is made to a different last.

This is particularly useful to widen the mid foot to medial or lateral for wide flat feet or Vagus feet.

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